Hermenéutica genealógica desde el cuerpo (Spanish Edition)
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It is, according to the author, the historical zenith of racialist thesis, in use in Brazil since the 19th century, until its decline with the end of the Second World War and the collapse of the so called Era Vargas2. He leads a constitutional government from to and finally imposes a dictatorship from to In short, the purpose was to instruct people about scientific ideas concerning an alleged racial and moral improvement of the Brazilian man, by encouraging a sanitary and, at the same time, nationalistic awareness.
Referring to the school realm, the author highlights the enthusiastic expectations assigned, in that context, to Physical Education. And this knowledge allowed to intervene in the population, organize it into more homogeneous, legible and manageable groups p. In fact, it is worth enhancing the key role, in biopolitical terms, conferred to the psychological discourse within the educational field.
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To do so, the author analyses two editions and of The life of the baby, a best seller, originally published in , written by Brazilian paediatrician Rinaldo De Lamare. The study presents incisive reflections: Through the permanent vigilance of her baby and the monitoring of what the child is already able to do, the mother becomes a child development inspector, and should turn to the experts, if she notices something abnormal.
In addition, the mother extracts truths about that subject who is on her 3 As it was entitled in Brazil, New School movement is analogue to Progressive education movement. The overall scenario outlined by historiographical studies creates a fertile ground for the studies that focused on contemporary educational issues. Moreover, one of the most significant attributes of educational studies appropriations of the notion of biopolitics is the radius increase of the analyses beyond school frontiers, embracing a series of socially scattered in formative actions. An example of this effort is the article by Henning et al.
It selects what should be said and indicates the way it must be said.
Thus, it sets up a power operation that reaches countless people, considering the circulation power of its discourses p. It is undoubtedly one of the main branches of the educational studies about biopolitics. The treatment granted to aging by the media was, in turn, focused in two studies. In the second text, Giusti prioritized front pages of health inserts in two newspapers, from to The study conclusions describe the biopolitical spectrum of management operations on such population groups, in view of the production of an old age based on health promotion, i.
The promotion enunciations currently adopted, which frame every subjects as liable to intervention, reveals the project dictated by geriatrics, which orientates the control of human life in all its extension The establishment of the elders new figure is based on the need for this population adaptation to follow the accelerated flow of events that define our times Giusti, , p.
That is what the authors advocate when they present the school measures for prevention and control of Influenza H1N1 when it appeared in Brazil in , demonstrating the conversion of curriculum practices in a ruthless security dispositif. Using statements about obese people that circulated in Orkut communities, Camozzato examines what she names current updates of racism, operated by body discourses, currently not only under a disciplinary frame, but also a biopolitical one. Such process develops, according to the author, when we speak about sexuality, fashion, youth identities, among other themes, the body is there, watching the set of processes that make us subjects of certain experiences.
Therefore, the body is constantly re evaluated, compared, selected Qualify, improve, clean, extract, sort, purify, accelerate, modify, in brief, verbs that meet a eugenics will p. Some statements in this last text reaffirm the amalgam role of the psychological discourse regarding the binomial health-education, marked in the logic of risk prevention, i. The psi knowledge and the rationality of governing conducts, economic and secure government, constitute, therefore, the parameters for the emergence of prevention logic Ribeiro, , p.
A similar set of issues sexuality, eating disorders, drug use and mental health became the motto of an intervention in a public primary and secondary school in Fortaleza capital of Ceara state, in the country northeast , in the form of focal groups. The critique of medicalization processes, associated to the biopolitization of educational practices often attested in school background, appears in two studies, both having reached similar conclusions. The notion of biopolitics, adversary to the aesthetics of existence, describes the capture of sexual differences through the identity fixation of their protagonists, imposing them a role as legitimate as, paradoxically, secreted in the socio-political and school order.
Thus, the subject of rights would automatically convert in subject of norm. It is, according to the authors, the production of bodies and lives adjusted to classification, correction and normalization processes that impose LGBT subjects a way of life operated from heteronormativity which establishes the identity logic as a resource to inclusion in the legal, social and educational sphere p.
The intrinsic relationship between inclusion and normalization joins the argumentative structure of most part of the educational researches that operated with the Foucauldian notion of biopolitics. It is, more specifically, a vigorous front explored by the texts analysed, which dedicated to characterize the requirements and, at the same time, the setbacks around educational inclusion in Brazil.
Despite the correctness of the educational inclusion precept, Foucauldian researchers seem to be unanimous in pointing out the paradoxical effects witnessed in its factual appropriation. In an opening text of this thematic field, Veiga-Neto offers what could be considered the Gordian knot of education inclusion: its normalizing function. This means that, by converting an unknown into a known abnormal, the norm makes this last one another case of its own From an association between Foucault and psychoanalysis, the authors propose to discuss the topic of exclusion and, particularly, racism.
The theme of exclusion also echoes in the study conducted by Martins , which presents nursery practices, that took place in Aracaju capital of Sergipe, another state in the northeast region , addressed to children of lowincome workers, whose responsibilities were systematically disqualified by the educational agents, resulting in stigmatization of children, believed to be raw.
A specific social niche focused in one of the articles refers to young victims of abandonment by their families, who were under social protection. Some conclusions of the study are acute: We verified that the exclusion of those young people reveals itself by the invisibility that they carry nowadays. They do not disturb, do not mobilize, do not change the order of the world.
They are normalized by the inclusion policies. Their lives do not preoccupy p.
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With the spread of biopolitical modality of population management, childhood finds himself entangled, according to the second author, in practices which overcome the purely disciplinary scope. Set around the notion of risk and its characteristic susceptibility, childhood care has accomplished, currently, an extended radius of action, derived from the activation of a wide range of security techniques related to children custody.
In an article on the cultural attitude related to the so called human and social differences, Benevides offers a summary of Foucauldian studies point of view about what is at stake in inclusive education: The will that sustains these practices, policies and discourses operates in order to take care of, include and secure the rights to health, to good quality of life, to the education of others—in one word, is to show the will of power that sustains the protection dispositifs.
Thus, who understands that the production of the difference to be included is simultaneous to the production of normality that includes, will understand better the will of power that sustains the protection dispositifs p. Through the prism of biopolitics, it becomes evident the fact that effectiveness of populations government processes operate through conversion of virtuality into universality, particularity into globalism.
In other words, it achieves totality by singularity. Here lies the centrepiece of biopolitical modality—markedly flexible and floating—of lifestyle shaping in contemporary times. Attention now turns to the association of certain factors that constitute not only individuals, but spaces, communities, social risk populations p. To the author, it is exactly as a community at risk and, therefore, as a target of imminent social control that individuals with educational special needs are being designed, treated and subjectivated by the public policies addressed to them at the present time.
This segment of the population, despite being in confinement, would not be apart from the inclusion meshes and the neoliberal accent that designates them. It should be pointed out, yet, a significant amount of texts dedicated to offer properly conceptual elements about inclusion as a political practice in governmentality. The promise of a status change within consumer relations—a promise that also comes to those who live in absolute poverty—, articulated the desire for condition of life change, is a source that maintain partnership between State and market, keeping inclusion as an neo-liberalism imperative Lopes, , p.
One of the argumentative milestones that structures this last axis refers to the processes of subjectivation, devoted to the edification and the constant update of the homo oeconomicus, as pointed out by Foucault in The Birth of Biopolitics. In the wake of an endless civilizing mission, a strategic turning point arises in Brazilian pedagogical rationality, according to Saraiva The author reviewed journal articles from educational field between and , in which the researchers evocated the insertion of new themes in the curricula, according to three major axes: nutritional education, as well health and sex education; entrepreneurial and financial education; environmental education and traffic education.
The endeavour to disseminate technical-scientific based information, by way of clarification of the school population in favour of living without risks, contemplate not only students, but also their families and the communities to which they belong.
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It is necessary to recognize that if there was a time when the population control relied mainly on strategies of restriction to information like censorship , today it seems that the truth, especially scientific truth, is what serves as the main support element p. According to the authors, this is the effect of a historical movement towards an uninterrupted flexion of pedagogy idea and, consequently, its domains expansion.
This willingness should be understood as the search for fulfilling a lack, an insatiable desire that is, overall, kindled by changing needs that are never supplied p. In order to establish the theoretical basis for the analysis of educational issues related to contemporary socio-political problems, many of the texts The first one, in particular, has become a reference employed by several subsequent studies. This is the outbreak of individuals-micro-enterprises, according to his terms, holders of the following attributes: They are proactive, innovative, flexible, with a sense of opportunity, with remarkable ability to provoke changes, etc.
Migrating from market—the new economic theories, administration and large business corporations corporate ethos —for society as a whole, this new discourse arrives at the education received and celebrated both by progressive and conservative sectors, by private and public segments, by governmental and non-governmental organizations Costa, , p.
In other words, it is about developing changing capacities instead of cultivating long-lasting knowledge, promoting modes of subjectivation as occasion of uninterrupted educational investments, which would result in hyperactive bodies and minds always in readiness for lifelong learning. That is, according to Saraiva , one of the indelible marks of cognitive capitalism: the biopolitical alliance between the regulatory universes of education and labour.
Associating the educational scope to the domain of immaterial labour, according to the assertion by Maurizio Lazzarato and Antonio Negri, the author detects a new pedagogical rationality in course, embodied in initiatives such as the pedagogy of projects and, above all, distance education. In both cases, printed materials addressed, respectively, to the university public and, in the second case, to high school teachers, are analysed.
The conclusions point out the main role that the media plays in the thought and conduct management of educational subjects, underscoring a pedagogy of protections which, according to Silva , p. Carvalho proposes, then, three ethicalpolitical principles in opposition to the many constraints operated by biopolitizated school, according to his terms: to overcome the walls of dominant signifiers-significations; to replace the manufacturing will for a handmade attitude; finally, to promote the event rather than strict planning.
It is intensive when we take into account the intricate work of collecting and organizing data. But it is modest in the sense we tried to resist the temptation of judging the uses of Foucault. A clog-notion, so to speak. Therefore, we have to acknowledge that the critical project endeavored by Foucault during the years we tried to map in the first section—a period usually referred to as his biopolitical interlude—has undoubtedly echoed the angst, hopes and obstacles that were circulating in Brazilian society when it was time to face post-dictatorial challenges. But it was also the s, a period when practices and values clearly from neoliberal matrix were emerging.
This is why we believe that when the educational researchers conjure the notion of biopolitics, they are not just wearing a comfortable clog-notion: they are also assuming a clog-operation, in the sense they bear a critical attitude, ultimately deeply questioning our educational present and its evils.
get link A genealogy of relations of power in West aimed to reinsert, within the strategic field of struggles, some of the low beginnings of practices and technologies of government that overpass our experience of present times—also and specially our educational present. After Foucault, it is possible to recognize that the era of equality is also the era of disciplines that hierarchize, select and rebuild differences accordingly to a new rationality. It is also the era of biopolitical practices, and its norm of differential distribution, which implies giving up the utopia of individual insertion.
If the relation between education and discipline seemed evident since the first Foucauldian works appeared, the paradoxical articulation between democratization of school and neoliberalism will produce a new horizon of problems where, as we have seen in the second section, the imperative of inclusion will repeatedly arise. Accompanying Foucault, we are also confronted to the idea that the era of freedom carries along technologies of government that produce and, at the same time, consume freedom.
That is to say that Foucauldian critique makes visible—crisply—the meshes of power that make freedom relative, as long as it is crossed by practices that produce subjects. Therefore the paradox of freedom as condition to regulation processes. Finally, Foucault confronts us with the limits of the era of fraternity when he unveils that it is based upon a racism of State that continuously produces cuts in order to scavenge population by identities that, largely, have consequences over their higher or lower chances of living—and living here has a biological, labor or educational sense.
As we can now acknowledge, beneath, above and within laws and rights, run practices that incessantly produce new forms of living and, therefore, new educational subjects. And this could mean, ultimately, that we take off our received clogs and risk hurting our bare feet by walking the unpaved paths of contemporaneous—experiencing its shards, its dirtiness, its compulsory incompleteness.
Augusto, S. Barros, J. Benevides, P. Bujes, M. Camozzato, V. Educar em Revista, 41, Carvalho, A. Carvalho, R. Carvalho, W.
Castro, E. Des governos Costa, S. Governamentalidade neoliberal, teoria do capital humano e empreendedorismo. Coutinho, K. Cruz, E. Elias, A. Foucault, M. The History of Sexuality.