Social Psychology at Work (Psychology Revivals): Essays in honour of Michael Argyle

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Impact of Employee Empowerment on Job A convenience sampling techniques was used to select the sample size Journal of the American Medical. Impact of Strategic Leadership on Employee. Impact of Employee Commitment on Organizational Development. Jan 1, - between empowerment and employee performance.

The impact of environmental factors on the. The Spearman Rank Correlation Coefficient was used to test the The impact of employee perceptions of training on organisational McGregor, D. The human side of enterprise. Download PDF. Abingdon, UK: Routledge. Bluyssen, P.

Comfort of. DOI: The introduction of partitions in previously open-plan workspaces gave workers more control over various ambient conditions and enabled them to personalize their individual workstations. These include indoor lighting, the color of walls and furnishing, the level of privacy, opportunities for outside viewing, furnishings, and plants.

Those elements also directly affect the people who work in and visit those settings. Studies have shown that well-designed environments make people feel happy and energized, while those that are poorly designed have the opposite effect. Therefore, they are critical to the success of an organization.

Environmental satisfaction occurs in settings where individuals feel that their expectations and basic needs are being met Lee, Psychologists have generally found job satisfaction and positive organizational outcome to be the two main consequences of a suitable work environment. Some observers have found that these issues have become even more pressing as the nature of work increasingly shifts from physical to mental production Luck, Its focus is on importing and exporting nanotechnology and healthcare products. Although located in two different parts of the Iranian capital, the Tehran branches had similar working environments.

Both were located on the top floor of an office building. One branch, on 11th floor of a building in the northern part of the city, had 21 employees in addition to the manager and supervisor. In this setting, five employees sat around a single table, while the other employees each had their own individual table. In the second branch, located on the eighth floor of an office building in the city center, 25 employees and 1 supervisor also worked in an open workspace.

Each branch also had a private room that was available for meetings and special occasions. In both settings, employees had neither visual nor acoustical privacy. Because of the high level of social density, employees reported that it was sometimes difficult to concentrate on their tasks. Moreover, there was no opportunity for them to personalize their surroundings. Various studies that focused on employees in such open-plan offices have found that those who were more satisfied with their work environment were also more satisfied with their jobs.

In a positive relationship, overall environmental satisfaction may lead to predictable job satisfaction. In this vein, Veitch et al. Exhibit 1 shows the relationship between environmental satisfaction and satisfaction with the physical condition of a workplace, including lighting, ventilation, privacy, and acoustics.

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Veitch et al. According to the broaden-and-build theory of positive emotions, a subset of positive emotions, including joy, love, happiness, and wellbeing, could enhance individual creativity Amabile et al. Therefore, feelings, emotions, satisfaction, and well-being have a significant effect on individual outcome and overall performance. Employee behavior and outcomes, as well as creativity and satisfaction, are affected by the workplace. Focusing on well-being at work can benefit organizations by helping employees feel happy, capable, and satisfied in their workplace and in the roles they are assigned Amabile et al.

Specifically, evidence indicates that those with a greater sense of well-being at work are likely to be more creative than those with a poor level of well-being Fredrickson, Positive emotion has also been shown to enhance satisfaction, motivation, and productivity at work Martin, According to the broaden-and-build theory of positive emotions, a subset of positive emotions, including joy, love, happiness, and wellbeing, could enhance individual creativity. Some factors in the work environment are primarily related to individual well-being and satisfaction with the job and environment, including work environment characteristics or environmental features, the availability of personal control over ambient conditions, the opportunity for interpersonal connections, and physical safety Clements-Croome, ; Veitch et al.

These elements are associated with individual wellbeing, happiness, and satisfaction in the workplace. Various studies on environmental behavior have indicated that positive work-related behavior such as environmental satisfaction, job SAMANI et al. Moreover, a greater level of well-being or environmental satisfaction is linked to better job performance, more job satisfaction, lower absenteeism, and lower employee turnover Clements-Croome, ; Martin, ; Van der Voordt, , which further enhance overall employee outcomes.

Exhibit 2 shows the relationship between the environmental features of the workplace, environmental satisfaction, and individual outcome. But differences in design concepts and sensibilities can complicate this task. Traditional office designs calling for small private rooms conflict with the open-plan concepts that are popular with contemporary organizations and start-ups. In saving space, they decrease maintenance costs and make it possible for greater numbers of people to work together.

On the downside, open-plan offices have been shown to lead to interruptions, more stress, and lower levels of concentration Brand, ; Samani et al. This decreased noise levels and allowed employees more individual privacy, more personal storage space, and the opportunity to control and enhance lighting at their own workstation with table lamps and other fixtures. The new workplace also incorporated natural and artificial plants and maintained the existing private meeting room. The measurement items addressed various environmental features, including personal control over the work environment five items , privacy and social density in the office five items , environmental satisfaction seven items , satisfaction with working in open-plan workspace five items , and perceived performance five items.

Demographic and background questions were also included in the survey.


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Manually distributed to 46 employees 1 month after the workplaces had been redesigned, the survey instrument took approximately 15 to 20 min to complete. Most of the respondents This study employed confirmatory factor analysis for evaluating the validity and unidimensionality of the scale, while the calculation of convergent validity relied on t-tests for factor loadings.

This interaction did not seem to 45 be hampered by the introduction of partition panels at PNPI Group, and empowered employees to determine whether they wanted to join in any communication that was taking place near their workspace. Most Although employees still were not able to control the room temperature after the panels were installed, more than half of them indicated that they were satisfied with the ambient temperature. Most of the employees In addition to noting that they had more privacy, employees said they were happy to be able to personalize their workstations and modify their lighting level.

Moreover, both employees and managers felt that the addition of the partitions made their workplace seem better organized, and that enabled them to work more efficiently SAMANI et al. This finding should help managers appreciate the value of tailoring their work facilities to motivate employees to work more effectively and to feel better while doing so.

Even minor environmental improvements can help make employees feel valued by the organization, thereby encouraging their best performance.

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Yet, it is too early to determine whether these improvements are longlasting. Therefore, additional research would be beneficial. Whereas this study focused on the shift from a completely open-plan workspace to one that used partitions to separate workstations in two office branches of an Iranian multinational trading company, future studies would also do well to concentrate on other types of workplaces in other fields and in other locations.

Affect and creativity at work. Administrative Science Quarterly, 50 3 , — Amabile, T. Perspectives on the social psychology of creativity. The Journal of Creative Behavior, 46 1 , 3— Baldry, C. The open-plan academy: Space, control and the undermining of professional identity. Baron, R. How environmental variables influence behavior at work. Furnham Eds. Building and Environment, 46 1 , — Boerstra, A. Impact of available and perceived control on comfort and health in European offices.

Architectural Science Review, 56 1 , 30— Brachos, D. Knowledge effectiveness, social context and innovation. Journal of Knowledge Management, 11 5 , 31— Brager, G. Operable windows, personal control, and occupant comfort.

Ashrae Transactions, 2 , 17— Brand, J. Should your company transition from traditional private offices to an open office plan? Brennan, A. Traditional versus open office design: A longitudinal field study. Environment and Behavior, 34 3 , — Cao, B. Development of a multivariate regression model for overall satisfaction in public buildings based on field studies in Beijing and Shanghai.

Building and Environment, 47 1 , — Carlopio, J. Direct and interactive effects of the physical work environment on attitudes.

Environment and Behavior, 24 5 , — Mugla Journal of Science and Technology, 3 1 , 20— Charles, K. Environmental satisfaction in open-plan environments: 2. Effects of workstation size, partition height and windows. Ottawa: Institute for Research in Construction. Clements-Croome, D.

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Creating the productive workplace 2th ed. Collett, P. Social psychology at work psychology revivals : Essays in honour of Michael Argyle. De Been, I.